Ingredients in Roman Recipes

Asafoetida A bitter resin with an onion like smell.
Caroenum A very sweet wine boiled until it is a third of the original volume, then mixed with honey.
Defritum Either a thick fIg syrup, or must that's boiled until you have only a third of the amount with which you started.
Liebstoeckl A plant with yellow flowers and is a kind of celery.
Liquamen A salty fish sauce. Most of the time you can replace it by salt.
Passum Very sweet wine sauce, made by boiling the must.
Pennyroyal Eurasian plant with hairy leaves and small mauve flowers, yielding an aromatic oil
Poleiminze A kind of mint.
Saturei A violet or white flowered plant that grows mainly in Southern Europe, and is used as a spice plant, especially for bean dishes.
Silphium an onion and garlic substitute that should be used rather sparingly because of its very strong taste and smell.
Spikenard An aromatic plant with small leaves and red-purple flowers.
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